USA, TURKEY AND KURDS: HOW THE MÄ°GHTY HAVE FALLEN


26/11/2016





In 1978 Moustafa Barzani wrote a letter to new president Jimmy Carter who is famous with his open support to self-determination rights of  minority groups all over the World,  complained that Kurds had been used  against Iraqi government then forgotten in Treaty of Algeria and  from now on Kurds desire USA to keep it’s promises and support them for liberation. At that time Jimmy Carter did not answered the letter, Barzani died due to cancer in Washington D.C    and burried with military honours  in old Mehabad region in Iran as a gesture of King Rıza Pehlevi. His heir Masoud Barzani  became the leader of Kurdish Democratic Party(KDP). Throughout the Middle East History, Kurds could  not achieved to rule themselves and ruled by various Turkish, Iranian and Arab  states.  Kurds have been rebelled many times thanks to some external forces and local anarchy caused by vacuum of authority.Mainly Israel and Iran used Kurdish people against  Iraqi state to decrease Arab military aggression in the region. It has been revealed that in the meetings between Israeli and Iranian diplomats, Kurdish political aims had been defined as a sparkle to control Iraq and should be avoided to become a fire that will burn the whole Middle East. In Cold War, Turkey was the most significant ally of USA after Israel  in the region. Due to it’s geopolitical position and strong military, it was an essential force to  keep near. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, unilateral rule of USA over the World had given it a proclaimed power to purify it’s foreign policy from all restraints of negotiating undesired nations and groups to encircle USSR and it’s satelite states. Turkey was one of the unlucky states that will be deceived by it’s  biggest ally.  In 90’s, so-called humanitarian interventions and very controversial collective actions of USA and European powers re-shaped the map of MENA. It is possible to see  grand demographic shifts in Iraq after Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988, chemical attacks of Saddam to Halabja and Gulf War. Many Arabs had been displaced and many Kurds immigrated to Turkey. After Saddam’s invasion of Kuwait, UNSC made a resolution to interfere Iraq. With Turkish appeal, UNSC resolution ordering North of the 36th pararel be out of Iraqi government’s authority. Actually, Turkey planned to create a buffer zone between kurdish tribes and prevent further Kurdish migration to it’s territory. Unfortunatelly, it led to creation of a more developped PKK and  spread of Kurdish terrorism to whole area. In 1992 Kurdish Parliament established temporary Kurdish government in Northern Iraq. Originally, majority of the Kurds are Sunni(except Barzani tribe) and according to them, it was not possible to live under Shiate rule. Shiate mullahs and Kurds are two main enemies of Saddam Husein. Some of the Shiate groups were against USA intervention too. . In 2004 after the end of Saddam rule in the country , for the first time Kurdish authorities mentioned not to be a part of Iraq anymore, after Shiate originated Iraq interim government had been elected. In the new Iraqi Constitution, Arabs and Kurds have been determined as two major ethnic groups in the country  and in this constitution Kurdistan Regional Government has been accepted as an autonomous part of Iraq. Also, Turkmens in Kerkük has been ignored in the 114th point of the constitution an additional  social-economic heaven for KRG has been created. In 2007, Grand National Assembly of Turkey made a decision to start a military operation to Northern Iraq,  against rising  Kurdish terorrism sourced in the region . Unfortunatelly, Sun operation had to end in 8 days as there were strong external criticisms about it. Turkish dream to create a buffer zone in the region had been falled again. Since then Turkey tried to have good relationships with KRG using  common goal of economic development. In November 2013, Masoud Barzani and Erdoğan met in Diyarbakır to highlight brotherhood between Turks and Kurds. Sivan Perwer and İbrahim Tatlıses sang Turkish and Kurdish songs together to make people remember the cultural commons. It can be accepted as the ceiling of good relationships between Turkey and KRG.What About Syrian Civil War?After Arab Spring has turned into a civil war between Assad government and opponents, similar to Iraq, Kurdish minority in Northern Syria has weaponized and established cantons near Turkish boarder. Moreover, they have been appreciated by Western states as they claimed that they are fighting against ISIL. Turkey tried to take measures against a probable independent Kurdish state in it’s southern borders and started Euphrates Shield operation with the help of Arab originated Free Syrian Army(FSA) to create a buffer zone against PKK, ISIL and prevent Afrin and Al Jazeera cantons to unite. In order to achieve this aim Turkish-led forces had to get El-Bab but it is highly threatened both by regime forces and YPG. In addition to these, USA insisted on using Kurdish forces in operation to  defacto capital of ISIL  Raqqa and  pro-Iranian forces in Mousul. Meanwhile starting with Bashika camp debates which had been established by local government’s legal apply, Iraqi Prime Minister Abadi threaten Turkey as it is intervening to Iraqi territory. In dawn, Syrian Democratic Forces(SDF) which is occured by 20.000 kurdish fighters and 10.000 Arab fighters started Raqqa operation. It has been recently announced that Kurdish forces entered a Northern Sunni Arab neighbourhood. It had been declared by USA officials that they would not wait till the end of Moudsul operation and Euphrates Shield Operation of Turkey to increase pressure over ISIL. Besides, they argued that they would use local forces to make a lasting transtion in the area. However, it is really hard to understand why Shiate forces entered a Sunni city of Mousul and too many Arab cities by Kurdish forces.  In my point of view it is not wrong to say that USA tries to create legitimized open-spaces for Shiate population and Kurds both in Northern Iraq and Northern Syria by using innocent good-willing of local people who attended Arab spring and a side reaction ISIL. The Ozal Map that foresee a new boarder of Turkey including Mousul has turned into a fatal tragedy. Kurdish movement had gained attention of USA with Saddam’s agression and now European support as a balance against ISIL. Sunni population forced to leave their homeland,  Turkey is ignored and fooled. Thanks to it’s nuclear and natural power Iran had a great opportunity to rise it’s sphere of political influence.  İlknur Şebnem ÖZTEMEL  

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